Primary water is not part of the Earth’s normal water cycle and differs considerably from that of rain-fed water resources.
It is the water that has been formed deep inside the Earth since time immemorial, geologically shielded from the influences of the Earth’s surface. Naturally purified, it makes its way to the surface through subterranean rock formations. It can often be found near the Earth’s surface in primary rock.

Primary water is pure water with a balanced mineral content, free from tritium, and can be drank without the need for filtering. Its high ionic charge, known as the oxidation reduction potential (ORP), is particularly valuable to all living creatures.

»If our planet did not have the ability to store oxygen in the deep reaches of its mantle there would probably be no life on earth.« This was the conclusion reached by scientists at the University of Bonn – Professor Dr Christian Ballhaus (Steinmann Institute of Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology at the University of Bonn), Arno Rohrbach et al. In particular, the earth constantly exudes hydrogen, which combines with this oxygen to form water. Without this “oxygen elevator’” in its mantle, the earth would probably be a barren planet hostile to life.

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It is assumed that there are enormous water resources deep inside the Earth – apparently three times that of all oceans combined. Even the ancient Germanic peoples knew of primary water.

The primary water paradigm

“We are made of atoms. This is one of the most profound and far-reaching discoveries ever. The story of how we arrived at this insight began over 4,500 years ago in Greece, where Thales of Miletus realised that any substance can be classified as solid, liquid or gas. He then went a step further: water can exist in each of these forms — so might it be the case that all matter essentially consists of water?”
Frank Close, The Cosmic Onion

Listen to the song “Water is Life” »

Since the 20th century, the discovery of primary water has once again come into the focus of researchers. There are now primary-water location specialists active on several continents.

“Alongside rain, there is another kind of water by which the interior of the earth is soaked; when heated it can continually give off halitus (water vapor), from which arises an abundant flow of water.”
Georgius Agricola, De ortu et causis subterraneorum (1546)

Adolf Erik


(1832 in Helsingfors, Finnland – 1901, Schweden)

A 19th-century botanist, geologist, mineralogist and explorer, and member of the Swedish Academy, he observed the creation of fresh water deep in mines, often near the surface when in the presence of a catalyst such as quartzite, olivine, norite, etc. He was nominated for the first Nobel Prize in Physics for his fieldwork and paper on primary water “About Drilling for Water in Primary Rock” – 1896. “It seems (after documenting 33 boreholes) that everywhere that one drills in the primary rocks in Sweden and Finland, at a constant depth of a little over 30m under the earth’s surface, a water bearing horizontal fissure is encountered. The theories on folding and the displacement of the primary rock’s surface layers by temperature variation have been clearly corroborated hereby […]” “[…] It comes free from the bacteria that exist in the earth’s surface layers, free from organic detritus, decay products and other substances injurious to health; for our purposes it is unrivalled in hygienic respects, having a temperature a little above the average temperature found at the spot where the hole was drilled.”

Stephan Riess


(1898 in Dillingen, Bavaria – 1985 in California, USA)

Geochemist, mineralogist and geo-hydrologist
He worked across Western USA as a mining engineer and developed the concept of earth-generated water independent of Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld.
In 1934, he drove the first primary water well.
He continued his work into the 80s, documenting 753 primary water wells across the globe.

Stephan Riess 2

Stephen Riess, 1980, at one of the wells drilled for California City in the middle of the Mojave Desert.